In this article, we will talk about non-current tangible assets and, specifically the plant assets. The article will be all about plant assets, their recognition, 10 quick inventory spreadsheet template excel wps office academy depreciation, and differentiation from other asset classes. However, land is not depreciated because of its potential to appreciate in value.

Plant assets are deprecated over their useful lives using the straight line or double declining depreciation methods. The cost of machinery does not include removing and disposing of a replaced, old machine that has been used in operations. Such costs are part of the gain or loss on disposal of the old machine. Some fixed assets’ fair values can be extremely variable, needing revaluations as often as once a year. Revaluations every three to five years are permissible in most other circumstances, according to IFRS.

  • Since these assets produce benefits for more than one year, they are capitalized and reported on the balance sheet as a long-term asset.
  • Plant assets are deprecated over their useful lives using the straight line or double declining depreciation methods.
  • Cost includes all normal, reasonable, and necessary expenditures to obtain the asset and get it ready for use.
  • The overall value of a company’s PP&E can range from very low to extremely high compared to its total assets.

Assets such as equipment, machinery, buildings, vehicles, and more are assets commonly described as property, plant, and equipment (PP&E). Items labeled as PP&E are tangible, fixed, and not easy to liquidate. PP&E is listed on a company’s balance sheet by adding its value minus accumulated depreciation. PP&E provides key functionality to help generate economic value to a company. For example, a company that needs to deliver its products gains value through the use of delivery vehicles, which would be considered PP&E.


In each
instance, purchase of the plant asset actually represents the advance payment
or prepayment for expected services. As with short-term prepayments, the accountant must allocate the cost
of these services to the accounting periods benefited. The value of PP&E is adjusted routinely as fixed assets generally see a decline in value due to use and depreciation. Depreciation is the process of allocating the cost of a tangible asset over its useful life and is used to account for declines in value.

  • This classification is rarely used, having been superseded by such other asset classifications as Buildings and Equipment.
  • Named during the industrial revolution, plant assets are no longer limited to factory or manufacturing equipment but also include any asset used in revenue production.
  • These resources are necessary for the companies to operate and ultimately make a profit.
  • It is also called a fixed-installment method, as equal amounts of depreciation are charged every year over the useful life of an asset.
  • The balance of the PP&E account is remeasured every reporting period, and, after accounting for historical cost and depreciation, is called the book value.

These are physical assets that are expected to be financially useful to a company for more than a year. A plant asset can be defined as any asset that can be utilized to produce revenue for the company. When a plant asset is acquired by a company that is expected to last longer than one year, it is recorded in the balance sheet at the end of the financial year. Besides, a part of the asset’s cost is charged to expenses account as a non-cash expense, depreciation. Property, plant, and equipment (PP&E) are long-term assets vital to business operations. Property, plant, and equipment are tangible assets, meaning they are physical in nature or can be touched; as a result, they are not easily converted into cash.

For example, accounts receivable and prepaid expenses are nonphysical, yet classified as current assets rather than intangible assets. Intangible assets are generally both nonphysical and noncurrent; they appear in a separate long-term section of the balance sheet entitled “Intangible assets”. Purchases of PP&E are a signal that management has faith in the long-term outlook and profitability of its company. PP&E are a company’s physical assets that are expected to generate economic benefits and contribute to revenue for many years.

What characteristics do plant assets have in common?

Even if the market value of the asset changes over time, accountants continue to report the acquisition cost in the asset account in subsequent periods. Remember that in recording the life history of an
asset, accountants match expenses related to the asset with the revenues
generated by it. Because measuring the periodic expense of plant assets affects
net income, accounting for property, plant, and equipment is important to
financial statement users. Plant assets are long-term fixed assets that are utilized to manufacture or sell a company’s products and services.

Common examples of plant assets

It propels operations forward and allows a company to generate money on a consistent basis. Equipment is also one of the most varied forms of plant assets since it differs based on the industry or the specific demands of each company. The land is a business area where a company establishes its factory or office to manufacture goods or provide services. On the other hand, land improvements include additional things like a parking lot, fence for security, or roads to access the facility.

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Main Purposes of Financial Statements (Explained)

PP&E are vital to the long-term success of many companies, but they are capital intensive. Companies sometimes sell a portion of their assets to raise cash and boost their profit or net income. As a result, it’s important to monitor a company’s investments in PP&E and any sale of its fixed assets.

Generally, plant assets are among the most valuable company assets and tend to be relied on greatly over the long term. As such, these assets provide an economic benefit for a significant period of time. The expected useful life of the machine is 7 years, and the salvage (scrap) value after 7 years will be $50,000. In this article, we’ve explained the concept of plant assets in very detail. We hope you’ll know the difference between plant assets and other non-current assets and the accounting treatment.

Some final thoughts on plant assets

Determining the cost of constructing a new building is often more difficult. Usually this cost includes architect’s fees; building permits; payments to contractors; and the cost of digging the foundation. Also included are labor and materials to build the building; salaries of officers supervising the construction; and insurance, taxes, and interest during the construction period. Any miscellaneous amounts earned from the building during construction reduce the cost of the building.

The process continued until the asset’s value reached the salvage value of $50,000. This method implies charging the depreciation expense of an asset to a fraction in different accounting periods. This method explains that the utility and level of economic benefit decrease as the age of asset increases. Equipment is also quite valuable and crucial to the operation of any organization.

Limitations of PP&E

The land is also an asset that is unlikely to deteriorate in value over time. The below table shows the different depreciation calculations over 7 years of useful life using four different methods. The Straight-Line method depreciates an equal amount of $50,000 from the opening value each year for 7 years until the asset’s value reaches the salvage value of $50,000. The image below shows the opening, depreciation, and closing values for 7 years. Here we will use all 4 methods to calculate the machine’s depreciation.